The main geological formation in the PTR area is Archean, which consists of intensely, metamorphosed, highly folded, faulted and over thursted magniferous Metasediments of the Saunsar series, comprising a series of schists and gneisses, marbles and calc-gneisses. These are associated with granites and ortho and composite gneisses. Granites and amphibolited pegmatite and quartzite later intrude these rocks. The Deccan trap, otherwise prevalent in other parts of both Seoni and Chhindwara districts, is almost absent within the limits of present boundary of the National Park and Sanctuary.
The park is located in the southern lower ridges reaches of the Satpura hill ranges, which form the catchment for river Pench. The Pench River flows almost through the centre of the park in North-South direction. The folding and upheavals in the past resulted in formation of a series of hills and valleys, rendering the terrain highly undulating with most of the area covered by small hill ranges steeply sloping on the sides. These hills have almost flat, gently slopping top and steep sides. Near the Pench River the area is flat and forming woodland and meadows.