The area is dominated by fairly open canopy mixed forests with considerable shrub cover and open grassy patches. This high habitat heterogeneity favors high population of Chital, Sambar, Wild boar & Blue bull. Another factor is the availability of doob grass (Cynodon daxctylon) during the late winter and early summer months in the drawdown area, which provides highly nutritious forage to the herbivores. Pench tiger reserve has of the highest density of herbivores (90.3 animals per square kilometer) and the second highest prey base biomass in India after Nagarhole (6013 Kg per square kilometer). The area supports large number of Gaur (Indian Bison), Sambar, Barking deer, Chousingha, Chinkara and Wild boar. The key predator is the Tiger followed by Leopard, Wild Dog and Wolf. Other animals include Jackal, Fox, Palm civet, Small Indian civet, Jungle cat, Common mongoose, Small Indian mongoose, Ruddy mongoose, Hyena, Porcupine, Ratel.
There are over 325 species of resident and migratory birds including the Malabar Pied hornbill, Indian Pitta, Osprey, Grey-headed fishing eagle, White eyed buzzard, 6 species of vultures etc. In winter thousands of migratory waterfowl including Brahminy duck, Pintail duck, barheaded geese, Coots, Pochards, Wigeon, Gadwall, Mallard etc visit the tanks and reservoir within the park. Pench Tiger Reserve is also among the best area for bird watching. The other fauna present include 50 species of fishes, 13 amphibians, 37 reptiles, 105 butterflies, 100 Moths, 20 spiders, 35 dragon and damsel fly and numerous other insects.
Census Year 2002 to 2015
* Figures for 2006 and 2010 are for the Pench landscape that includes Pench Maharashtra
** 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015 Tiger figures are minimum number of tigers found in the Core Area during yearly camera trap exercise